Bachelor and Master Theses

List of theses available for opponentship



List of theses available for opponentship

For the presentations on May 31st- June 5th, 2018

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DVA423

An Attack Model of Autonomous Systems of Systems

Amer Surkovic, Dzana Hanic

Advisor: Aida Causevic

Examiner: Kristina Lundqvist


Abstract:

Context: In order to provide more functionalities and services, systems collaborate with each other creating more complex systems called Systems of Systems. Exploiting security vulnerabilities in such complex systems has an impact over system safety and it is not sufficient to analyze them separately in the development process. Observing these safety and security interdependencies together can be done via the process of attack modeling where attack models deploy a model for detecting vulnerabilities and possible mitigation strategies while observing system security from an adversary point of view. Objective: The aim of the thesis is to explore the interdependencies between safety and security concerns, to provide details on attack model(s) and affected safety requirements of given system, to argument that the system is acceptably safe to operate, and to contribute to the identified business challenges. Method: The thesis work consists of: (i) a literature survey on interdependencies between safety and security, and a literature survey on the existing attack models; (ii) a demonstration on a use case where the argument that the given system is acceptably safe with respect to the selected attack model has been provided using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN). Conclusion: The first literature survey conducted on the topic of interdependencies between safety and security has resulted in a number of papers addressing the importance of investigating safety and security together. Reviewed papers have been focused either on proposing new approaches or extending the existing ones in different industry domains like automotive, railway, industrial, etc. The literature survey on existing attack models has resulted in a number of papers elaborating attack models in general and showing domain-specific attack models such as those in control systems, vehicles, Cloud Computing, IoT, networks, RFID, Recommender Systems, etc. To provide an argument that the given system is acceptably safe by using GSN, investigated results from the selected attack model showed how to protect system while observing it from an adversary point of view. Including security countermeasures, i.e. data and identity authentication and implementation of access control in the system development process can produce an acceptably safe system, whilst, at the same time, affect different business aspects by introducing latency and delay to the system. However, avoiding such mitigation techniques may have catastrophic impact on the system and its environment when attacks are launched.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2127



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DVA423

Test Oracle Automation with Machine Learning: A Feasibility Study

Nermin Imamovic

Advisor: Adnan Causevic

Examiner: Mobyen Uddin Ahmed


Abstract:

The train represents a complex system, where every sub-system has an important role. If a subsystem doesn’t work how it should, the correctness of whole the train can be uncertain. To ensure that system works properly, we should test each sub-system individually and integrate them together in the whole system. Each of these subsystems consists of the different modules with different functionalities what should be tested. Testing of different functionalities often requires a different approach. For some functionalities, it is necessary domain knowledge from the human expert, such as classification of signals in different use cases in Propulsion and Controls (PPC) in Bombardier Transportation. Due to this reason, we need to simulate of using experts knowledge in the certain domain. We are investigating the use of machine learning techniques for solving this cases and creating system what will automatically classify different signals using the previous human knowledge. This case study is conducted in Bombardier Transportation (BT), Västerås in departments Train Control Management System (TCMS) and Propulsion and Controls (PPC), where data is collected, analyzed and evaluated. We proposed a method for solving the oracle problem based on machine learning approach for different for certain use case. Also, we explained different steps what can be used for solving the test oracle problem where signals are part of verdict process.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=2147



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DVA423

A Formal Analysis Framework for EAST-ADL Architectural Models Extended with Behavioural Specifications in Simulink

Paolo Shestani, Vasja Collaku

Advisor: Raluca Marinescu

Examiner: Marjan Sirjani


Abstract:

Model-Driven Development is a development approach which is being used frequently in the automotive context in order to design models. EAST-ADL is an architectural language which models systems according to their features, whereas Simulink is a tool environment which models systems according to their behavior. In this thesis work we propose a set of transformation rules that create a formal model from an EAST-ADL architectural model with behavioral speci cations in Simulink, which are veri ed in UPPAAL, along with a tool that automates these transformation rules.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2179



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DVA423

Consistent integration of system and software models at different levels of abstraction

Amina Krekic, Emina Smajlovic

Advisor: Jan Carlson

Examiner: Antonio Cicchetti


Abstract:

Due to numerous domain needs, aspects and requirements, various preferences and diversity of organizations, development of complex embedded systems mostly requires using many different tools and modeling languages. Since corresponding data is repeated in multiple models, at different levels of abstraction and expressed in different modeling languages, it is very challenging to keep these models consistent and up to date as the system evolves. A case study from one of Volvo CE’s vehicles has been used to evaluate the approach. With the aim of improving the development process of embedded systems, the gap between models describing different aspects of the system has been addressed. An existing example of one system function has been analyzed and discussed. We have examined SysML models and Simulink models of the function in favor of perceiving dependencies between them. After finding dependencies, we have generalized them into a list of various dependency types. During the case study, it has been noticed that these models are not one-to-one related which makes the automatic conversion between them harder. Hence, the gaps between SysML and Simulink models are recognized. Further, a possible way of improvements are proposed in order to achieve a consistent integration of system and software models at different levels of abstraction


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2128



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DVA423

Modeling Product Line Variability in the Rail Vehicle Domain

Stefan Bogićević

Advisor: Eduard Enoiu

Examiner: Federico Ciccozzi


Abstract:

Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) is a development approach used for handling large amounts of variants in software systems. The idea behind this approach is to exploit reusability of various similar and diverse products. Reusable products have various commonalities and differences that can be exploited, and in order to do so, developers need to define those differences (i.e., variabilities) within them. Variabilities can occur at different abstraction levels, through whole product lifecycle and developer need to handle it through the whole process. To address this problem at the architectural and requirement level we used pure::variants, a leading variant-management commercial tool, to model variability within requirements in the railway domain. With this tool, we explicitly define a process on how to design a variability model that could be used to model several aspects of requirement variability, which can be reused again in the future, for the requirement engineering. We propose an approach for engineers to automatically generate models from requirement documents and then with the use of pure::variants functions, create various different aspects which are then further transformed into feature models. Finally, the results of this transformation made possible the identification between core and variant features presented in these requirements making it easy to define what parts of the software are project specific and what are common for all generated models. Our results indicate that variability modelling using the pure::variants tool is applicable for requirement variant handling in the railway domain.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=2133



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DVA424

An evaluation of Model-Based Testing for an industrial Train Control Software

Sidorela Suli

Advisor: Eduard Paul Enoiu

Examiner: Daniel Sundmark


Abstract:

In this thesis, we investigate the literature and review the related work on case studies on the MBT use in industry and its evaluation. We perform a case study to evaluate MBT on a train control management system provided by Bombardier Transportation. We use Comformiq Creator MBT Tool to create models for functional requirements of a master controller function and generate test cases. We provide the result of the modeling approach as well as a comparison between automatic test cases created by Conformiq Creator and manual test cases written by industrial engineers at Bombardier Transportation using the following metrics: test coverage and time spent on testing. 


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:




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DVA423

Automation and Evaluation of Software Fault Prediction

Bora Lamçe

Advisor: Wasif Afzal

Examiner: Federico Ciccozzi


Abstract:

Delivering a fault-free software to the client requires exhaustive testing, which in today's ever-growing software systems, can be expensive and often impossible. Software fault prediction aims to improve software quality while reducing the testing effort by identifying fault-prone modules in the early stages of development process. However, software fault prediction activities are yet to be implemented in the daily work routine of practitioners as a result of a lack of automation of this process. This thesis presents an Eclipse plug-in as a fault prediction automation tool that can predict fault-prone modules using two prediction methods, Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression, while also reflecting on the performance of these prediction methods compared to each other. Evaluating the prediction methods on open source projects concluded that Logistic Regression performed better than Naive Bayes. As part of the prediction process, this thesis also reflects on the easiest metrics to automatically gather for fault prediction concluding that LOC, McCabe Complexity and CK suite metrics are the easiest to automatically gather. 


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=1898



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DVA428

OPTIMIZING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING SYSTEMS

Ali Alshiekh

Advisor: Hamid Reza Faragardi and Mohammad Ashjaei

Examiner: Thomas Nolte


Abstract:

The huge number of network devices in cloud data-centers consume copious amounts of power, this has emerged as a matter of concern for data center operators. Cloud computing finds its application in various fields, such as telecommunication, multimedia etc., most of these applications require a timing guarantee for its provided services (real-time applications). Once cloud computing is going to guarantees performance and quality of service requirements such as deadlines, more hardware resources are required such as more number of servers, switches, higher network bandwidth, more cooling and power distribution systems. In this context, increasing hardware devices and links lead to boost power consumption and augment operational cost. This thesis aims at optimizing the network energy consumption, which in turn leads to a reduction in energy consumption of data-centers while satisfying network constraints. The energy reduction of network achieved by turning off idle devices and playing with the allocation of the workloads to servers to minimize the communication load, thereby increasing the number of idle devices. Our implementation exhibits great-full performance of using OSPF routing protocol to describe the network by drawing the routing table to find the finest tasks paths and address the idle devices, and applying Elastic Tree mechanism over OSPF tasks paths, to give improvement 22.75\% as an average optimizing of energy consumption overall network equipment. The performance of the method is compared with increased network's load. It shows the trade-off between optimizing network energy consumption and the increased network's load. According to the results of the experiments, the Elastic Tree mechanism gains more optimizing of network energy consumption. However, it increases the network's load.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=2153



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DVA430

Systematic Mapping study of ADAS and Autonomous Driving

Bahareh Agha Jafari Wolde

Advisor: Sara Abbaspour Asaddolah

Examiner: Saad Mubeen


Abstract:

Now a days Autonomous driving revolution is getting much closer to the reality. To achieve the self-driving car[y1] , the first step is Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS). Today an increasing number of modern vehicles have ADAS. [1] Driver-assistance systems are one of the fastest-growing segments in automotive electronics and there are many forms of ADAS available. To enter this field and join this revolutionary mobility movement, the first need is to clarify how many researches have been done, how much it has proceeded and what are the gaps and shortcomings in this area. In this thesis we identified 1498 relevant publications about ADAS and Autonomous Driving completed from 1973 to 2017. A Systematic Mapping Study used to organize them and, a classification introduced based on the developments carried out in ADAS and autonomous driving. Based on this classification research types, research contributions and research gaps were found. This thesis will shed lights for a better understanding of achievements and shortcomings in the industry.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=2143



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DVA501

Music in Motion - Smart Soundscapes

Usman Alam

Advisor: Afshin Ameri and Jennie Andersson Schaeffer

Examiner: Baran Çürüklü


Abstract:

This thesis aims to explore the possibility of developing a system that can interact with people near it, through composing and playing unique tailored sounds for them. This research is a part of the Music in Motion (MiM) project, which was carried out in collaboration between Mälardalen University and the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. It aims to develop a system which can interact with people and generate soundscape based on the people's interaction with the system or environment. It can be installed on any artifact of choice. The thesis focuses on designing and developing a system named Smart Soundscape System. The system is based on designing an algorithm which can interpret visitor’s behaviors and their way of interaction with a museum artifact; therefore, allocate a unique sound to each interaction. To design such systems, it is important to investigate the parameters which can ideally represent people’s interactions and how they can affect the generated soundscape. In this thesis, the interactions are considered in the context of the museum. The primary data was collected by visiting and observing the interaction of visitors around an artifact in the museum. In this study we give an interactive environment scheme that helps to explore the possibilities for generating interactive space, in which visitors and a museum artifact become involved in collaboration. Moreover, the author shows how this scheme can be defined to extract the functional requirements and implement them for the smart soundscape system. This thesis followed an iterative design methodology. By using this method, a functional version of the system is designed and implemented. Keywords: Embedded systems, Multimodal, Gesture technologies, Human-computer interaction, Soundscape, Digital museum, Audio applications, Interaction, Interaction design


Sammanfattning:

Denna studie är en del projektet Music in Motion (MiM). Projektet genomfördes i samarbete mellan Mälardalens högskola och Svenska Historiska Museet i Stockholm. Det syftar till att utveckla ett system som kan generera ljud baserat på människors interaktion med systemet eller miljön. Det ska kunna installeras olika artefakter val. Avhandlingen fokuserar på att designa och utveckla ett system som heter Smart Ljud System. Kärnan i detta system är baserat på utforma en algoritm som kan tolka besökare beteenden och deras sätt att interaktion med artefakten och; tilldela ett unikt ljud för varje interaktion. För att utforma ett sådant system är det viktigt att undersöka de parametrar som helst kan representera människors interaktioner och hur de kan påverka de ljud som genereras. I denna uppsats tar interaktioner plats i en museimiljö. De primära data samlades in genom att observera samspelet mellan besökarna och en artefakt i museet. I denna studie beskrivs också hur man kan bryta ner en idé som heter Multimodal Design Brief för utveckling av ett smart ljudsystem. Det första steget var att utforma de funktionella kraven genom förståelse av den multimodala design briefen och efteråt anpassa systemet för dem. Denna avhandling följde en iterativ designprocess metodik. Genom att använda denna metod har målen för denna studie uppnåtts och en fungerande version av systemet utformas och genomförs. Nyckelord: Multimodalitet, HCI, Ljudlandskap, Digitala museer, ljudprogram, Interaktion och Interaktionsdesign


Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=1529



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DVA501

Migrating and evaluating a test environment from a dynamically to a statically typed language

Hamza Sabljakovic, Marija Djordjevic 

Advisor: Wasif Afzal

Examiner: Jan Carlson


Abstract:

Maintenance takes considerable effort in software development. Consequently, improving soft- ware maintainability can reduce costs and improve future maintenance of software. Previous re- search on the topic of software maintenance suggests that a type system might have impact on software maintainability. More precisely it indicates that statically-typed languages have positive impact on software maintenance in a long run. However, the previous work on the topic only takes bug fixing as an indicator of maintenance while ignoring others. Therefore, this thesis is interested in answering how the typing system affects refactoring and code navigation as two representative software maintenance activities. Furthermore, in consideration of positive impacts of static typing and increase in dynamic languages popularity in last two decades, the second aspect of this thesis is interested in software migration from dynamically typed to statically typed language. By following the process of migration, this thesis provides several contributions. The first one is state-of-the-art research on the topic of testing frameworks for embedded systems, which is used as an input for the migration process helping to produce a set of guidelines for a software migration. Finally, while it was previously shown that type system has a positive impact on bug fixing, the experiment done as a part of this thesis demonstrated that there is no difference in time it takes to refactor or navigate code except in one of the tests where statically-typed language showed better performance.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2210 



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DVA501

An Evaluation of Model-based Testing in Industrial Practice: From System Modelling to Test Generation

Aliya Hussain

Advisor: Eduard Paul Enoiu and Saurabh Tiwari

Examiner: Jan Carlson 


Abstract:

Model-based testing (MBT) is the test automation technique which increases reliability, understandability, and maintainability of test cases. Moreover, it is cost and time efficient. MBT is the process of the test generation from design models of the system requirements and functionality. There are studies showing initial results on the advantages of using MBT with some promising results. This is inspiring large scale industries to take interest in adopting the MBT approach to test their systems. This thesis aims to evaluate the support of MBT in Industrial practice. It investigates the automated testing approach and its acceptance in the context of Volvo CE. Structural and executable behavior models are manually created based on functional architecture and requirements of subsystem provided my Volvo-CE. These models are generated in Conformiq Creator which is one of the compatible tools used for MBT. Test cases are generated using different model coverage criteria. In the end, the effeteness of automated test cases is analyzed by comparing them with manual test cases using different matrixes. The whole process from system model to test case evaluation allowed to investigate the acceptance of MBT approach in the Vehicular domain.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=2132



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DVA502

Design and development of a wireless multipoint e-stop system for autonomous haulers

Alexander Karlsson

Advisor: Svetlana Girs

Examiner: Martin Ekström


Abstract:

Safety-related functions are important in autonomous industrial applications and are featured in an extensive body of work contained within the standards. The implementation of safety-related systems is commonly done by an external company at a great cost and with limited flexibility. Thus, the objective of this thesis was to develop and implement a safety-related system using off-the-shelf products and to analyse how well it can comply with the established standards of safety-related functions. This work has sought to review the current standards for safety-functions, the effects of harsh radio environments on safety-related systems, and how to validate the safety-function. The system development process was used to gain knowledge by first building the concept based on a pre-study. After the pre-study was finished, the process moved to the development of software, designed to maintain a wireless heartbeat as well as to prevent collisions between the autonomous and manual-driven vehicles at a quarry, and implementation of the system in real hardware. Finally, a set of software (simulations) and hardware (measurements in an open-pit mine) tests were performed to test the functionality of the system. The wireless tests showed that the system adhered to the functional requirements set by the company, however, the evaluated performance level according to ISO 13849-1 resulted in performance level B which is insufficient for a safety-related function. This work demonstrates that it is not possible to develop a safety-related system using the off-the-shelf products chosen, without hardware redundancy.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&lang=en&id=2211



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DVA502

Intelligent Robotic Gripper With an Adaptive Grasp Technique

Pontus Pettersson-Gull, Johan Johansson

Advisor: Fredrik Ekstrand

Examiner: Martin Ekström


Abstract:

This thesis presents a robotic gripper with an intelligent sensor system to grasp objects with an adaptive grasp technique. Two techniques are used, one for small objects and one for large objects. The sensor system is able to detect the object and measure its size to adapt the grasp. Optical motion sensors are used to see when the object is slipping between the fingers which means that more force needs to be applied. This makes it possible to grasp rigid and soft objects without damaging them. The functionality of the gripper was tested on eight objects with various characteristics. The results show that it can adapt the grasp technique and grasping force to the objects' size and softness.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2201



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DVA502

A wavelet-based surface electromyogram feature extraction for hand gesture recognition

Axel Forsberg

Advisor: Sara Abbaspour and Nikola Petrovic

Examiner: Ivan Tomasic


Abstract:

The research field of robotic prosthetic hands have expanded immensely in the last couple of decades and prostheses are in more commercial use than ever. Classification of hand gestures using sensory data from electromyographic signals in the forearm are primary for any advanced prosthetic hand. Improving classification accuracy could lead to more user friendly and more naturally controlled prostheses. In this thesis, features were extracted from wavelet transform coefficients of four channel electromyographic data and used for classifying ten different hand gestures. Extensive search for suitable combinations of wavelet transform, feature extraction, feature reduction, and classifier was performed and an in-depth comparison between classification results of selected groups of combinations was conducted. Classification results of combinations were carefully evaluated with extensive statistical analysis. It was shown in this study that logarithmic features outperforms non-logarithmic features in terms of classification accuracy. Then a subset of all combinations containing only suitable combinations based on the statistical analysis is presented and the novelty of these results can direct future work for hand gesture recognition in a promising direction.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2145



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DVA502

Handheld LiDAR Odometry Estimation and Mapping System

Niclas Holmqvist

Advisor: Carl Ahlberg

Examiner: Masoud Daneshtalab


Abstract:

Ego-motion sensors are commonly used for pose estimation in SLAM algorithms. IMUs are popular sensors but suffer from integration drift over longer time scales. To remedy the drift they are often used in combination with additional sensors, such as a LiDAR. Pose estimation is used when matching scans produced by these additional sensors. Scans can be computationally heavy as one scan can contain millions of data points. Methods exist to simplify the problem of finding the relative pose between sensor data, such as the Normal Distribution Transform SLAM algorithm. The algorithm separates the point cloud data into a voxelgrid and represent each voxel as a normal distribution, effectively decreasing the amount of data points. Registration is based on a function which converges to a minimum. Sub-optimal conditions can cause the function to converge at a local minimum. To remedy this problem this thesis explores the benefits of combining IMU sensor data to estimate the pose to be used in the NDT SLAM algorithm.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2203



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DVA502

Automated redundancy testing in software and hardware

Per Ekström, Elisabeth Eriksson

Advisor: Mohammad Loni and Alessandro Papadopoulos

Examiner: Masoud Daneshtalab


Abstract:

A reliable embedded real time system has many requirements to fulfill. It must meet target deadlines in a number of situations, most of them in a situation that puts heavy stress on the system. This has led to the evolution of a complex and rigorous test bed that takes a lot of time to execute, and as system complexity grows, the test times grow even more. In this thesis, a method to reduce the testing time of the software and, to a lesser extent, hardware is examined. By using the full system simulator Simics, an existing industry system from ABB was integrated and tests were performed. A proof of concept test suite for automatic redundancy tests was also implemented. By looking at the test results, it was concluded that the method shows promise. However, problems with the average latency and performance troubles with Simics shows that more work must be put into this research before the system can be run at full speed.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2175



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DVA502

Platform development of body area network for gait symmetry analysis using imu and uwb technology

Anders Persson

Advisor: Martin Ekström

Examiner: Mikael Ekström


Abstract:

Having a device with the capability of measure motions from GAIT produced by a human being, could be of most importance in medicine and sports. Physicians or researchers could measure and analyse key features of a person's GAIT for the purpose of rehabilitation or science, regarding neurological disabilities. Also in sports, professionals and hobbyists could use such a device for improving their technique or prevent injuries when performing. In this master thesis, I present the research of what technology is capable of today, regarding GAIT analysis devices. The research that was done has then help the development of a suggested stand alone hardware sensor node for a Body Area Network, that can support research in GAIT analysis. Furthermore, several algorithms like for instance UWB Real-Time Location and Dead Reconing IMU/AHRS algorithms, have been implemented and tested for the purpose of measuring motions and be able to run on the sensor node device. The work in this thesis shows that a IMU sensor have great potentials for generating high rate motion data while performing on a small mobile device. The UWB technology on the other hand, indicates a disappointment in performance regarding the intended application but can still be useful for wireless communication between sensor nodes. The report also points out the importance of using a high performance micro controller for achieving high accuracy in measurements. 


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2202



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DVA502

AN AUTONOMOUS ROBOT FOR COLLECTING WASTE BINS IN AN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT

Billy Lindgren, Giancarlo Kuosmanen

Advisor: Mikael Ekström

Examiner: Ning Xiong


Abstract:

"The aim of this work is to introduce autonomous robots for collecting waste bins in an office environment. Since the environment will contain humans, therefore, the robot-human interaction is essential so that neither the robot or humans come in harm’s way. To prevent this, the robot needs to be able to communicate with the humans, and it has to operate in a safe way in the office environment. To facilitate this there is a need to investigate the state-of-the-art in various fields

such as: mapping, path planning and, machine-human nteraction. The result is a robot that is able to map an indoor environment and use the map to its advantages for producing a suitable path from any given position to any desired location. While traversing the path, sensor data is gathered for obstacle detection and avoidance in order to handle dynamic environments."


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2198



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DVA502

Novel Cluster-Based SVM to reduce classification error in noisy EEG data: towards real-time brain-robot interfaces

Martin Johansson

Advisor: Elaine Åstrand and Jonatan Tidare

Examiner: Ning Xiong


Abstract:

To be able to control a robotic platform using signals form the human brain is something that has been considered science fiction for a long time. With the technology available today however, it has more or less become a reality. Electroencephalography or EEG for short is a widely used method for extracting signals form the brain. The signals in this thesis contains motor imagery (MI) commands that are supposed to be sent through a brain computer interface (BCI) to control a mobile robot. This thesis investigates deeper in-to classification of these signals, specifically optimising classification accuracy of noisy EEG data, that previously has been unsatisfactory classified with support vector machine (SVM). It is paramount that the classification accuracy is as high as possible when used in a BCI since the robot can cause damage if the commands are faulty. A new cluster-based SVM is developed that discards uncertain trials and minimises the false positive rate in an attempt to increase the accuracy. The algorithm increases the classification accuracy compared to SVM alone by 8%. Alongside this new algorithm, eye movement artefacts and separability of the MI commands are analysed to further investigate classification accuracy influences.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2002



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DVA502

Evaluation of Grasp-and-Extend Hand Dynamics and Intelligent Modeling of Grasp Hand Dynamics

Josefine Gustafsson Häll

Advisor: Elaine Åstrand

Examiner: Ning Xiong


Abstract:

"This master thesis looks to find dynamics in hand movements to further be used in stroke rehabilitation research. To be able to provide feedback during rehabilitation could help with movement recovery for a stroke patient for whom these movements have been damaged. Data was recorded from both right and left hands of the participants. The data was evaluated, both between different participants and different hands on the same participant. Different movements were separated to be examined individually. 

Both classification and prediction was performed and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks were used for classification as well as for prediction. The data used in the prediction training was the data recorded while the hand was closing and the data used in the classification training was the data recorded while the hand was closing into a grip and relaxing again. The classification was able to find classes in the data successfully. The prediction proved more problematic. However, the results show that there are definite improvements that could be done to improve the networks performances while predicting the movement and that the radial basis function neural network still is interesting to consider in future research on the subject."


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2158



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DVA502

A Mobile Robot Platform for Measuring Ionizing Radiation on Floor-Surfaces

Alexander Falk, Rickard Willman

Advisor: Fredrik Ekstrand

Examiner: Mikael Ekström


Abstract:

When a nuclear facility is under decommissioning, all material that potentially has been exposed to radiation must undergo clearance to be exempted from regulatory control. Material classified as radioactive is ruled by strong restrictions on how to handle it. Therefore it is favourable to re-classify it as non-radioactive if possible. The Swedish company Nutronic is involved with decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The work includes measuring floors for ionizing radiation, a process that currently is performed by workers with hand-held devices and simple trolleys. In this thesis work, a mobile robot have been developed to facilitate this process. Algorithms for mapping, localization and coverage path planning have been implemented and assembled using the underlying software framework ROS. The methods that have been selected are supported by thorough research. The system have been tested regarding quality of generated maps, precision and accuracy of the localization, and optimization of coverage path planning. The tests show that it is possible for a robot to serve as replacement for a worker when performing measurements of ionizing radiation.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2199



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DVA502

DESIGN OF A DYNAMIC BOOM SUSPENSION SYSTEM IN A HYBRID WHEEL LOADER

Ayoub Ayoub, Carl Martin Berg

Advisor: Alessandro Papadopoulos

Examiner: Ning Xiong


Abstract:

Wheel loaders are under the influence of low frequency vibrations that may be harmful for the health of the operator, and for the productivity of the machine. The strong vibrations can sig- nificantly impact the operation of the machine since they are not equipped with wheel suspension systems and due to their work environment in rough terrains with uneven surfaces. The risk of spilling or dropping the load is also increased and they can introduce higher mechanical stress that can wear out parts faster. The focus of this thesis work is to develop an approach for damp- ing these vibrations dynamically by improving the functionality of the electrohydraulic system in Volvo’s prototype wheel loader LX1. The dynamic damping system controls the cylinder of the lift framework to make it behave as a damper. The system utilizes the lift cylinder pressure and piston position as feedback to adjust the oil flow in the cylinder using the proposed control system. Results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of attenuation that is comparable with the existing boom suspension system based on accumulators through simulations and experimental tests


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2170



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DVA503

A Method for Optimised Allocation of System Architectures With Real-time Constraints

Marcus Ventovaara, Arman Hasanbegović

Advisor: Saad Mubeen and Mikael Ekström

Examiner: Mikael Sjödin


Abstract:

Optimised allocation of system architectures is a well researched area as it can greatly reduce the developmental cost of systems and increase performance and reliability in their respective applications. In conjunction with the recent shift from federated to integrated architectures in automotive, and the increasing complexity of computer systems, both in terms of software and hardware, the applications of design space exploration and optimised allocation of system architectures are of great interest. This thesis proposes a method to derive architectures and their allocations for systems with real-time constraints. The method implements integer linear programming to solve for an optimised allocation of system architectures according to a set of linear constraints while taking resource requirements, communication dependencies, and manual design choices into account. Additionally, this thesis describes and evaluates an industrial use case using the method wherein the timing characteristics of a system were evaluated, and, the method applied to simultaneously derive a system architecture, and, an optimised allocation of the system architecture. This thesis presents evidence and validations that suggest the viability of the method and its use case in an industrial setting. The work in this thesis sets precedence for future research and development, as well as future applications of the method in both industry and academia.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2174



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DVA503

NAIAD PID CONTROLLER

Ali Alexander Mokdad

Advisor: Nils Mullner and Lennie Carlen Eriksson

Examiner: Adnan Causevic


Abstract:

This paper presents a literature review of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller of an autonomous underwater vehicle NAIAD. It starts from an already existing PID for the NAIAD and how it works, followed by a motivation of redesigning a new PID controller based on the previous one. Then, a detailed research method is performed leading to the results of the new PID. The objective of this study is to design a better PID controller for the NAIAD.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2213



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DVA503

Object search in 2D space using an intelligent vision system for robot arms

Albin Billman 

Advisor: Nandinbaatar Tsog

Examiner: Mikael Sjödin


Abstract:

Most industrial robot arms today are not autonomous or aware of their surroundings, to rectify this Unibap has developed an intelligent vision system (IVS-70) with a stereo camera that can provide the arms with artificial intelligence and computer vision. Such a system has limited resources and as such wants to use solutions that are as efficient as possible. The aim of this thesis is therefore to select a suitable object search algorithm for the IVS-70. To do this two different object search algorithms were selected and compared. One of the selected algorithms consists of the partially observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) planner that uses Determinized Sparse Partially Observable Trees known as DESPOT which is a general problem solver and not specific to object search. The other selected algorithm is a simpler object search specific solution referred to as "sphere search" in this paper. The results show that the simpler "sphere search" approach achieves better results in both computation time and memory usage, it can also handle bigger search problems than the DESPOT algorithm.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2164



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DVA503

BRAKE-BY-WIRE IN SUMO: A CUSTOM SOLUTION FOR BRAKING SIMULATION

Erik Martin Campaña

Advisor: Nils Müllner and Saad Mubeen

Examiner: Thomas Nolte


Abstract:

More and more computer simulations of urban traffic are employed in order to predict and optimize the behavior and impact of new technologies. Innovative technologies appear every day and the simulation tools must adapt to take them into account. This thesis shows how custom braking systems can be employed in simulations with the SUMO simulator, something that is currently not supported. A method to make this possible will be provided as well as an assessment of its performance. Not only will this enable future research but it will allow to transport past researches into the present. 


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=1997



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DVA503

Methods for Automatic Hydraulics Calibration in Construction Equipment 

Peter Charbachi , Filippo Ferrario 

Advisor: Alessandro Papadopoulos and Saad Mubeen 

Examiner: Daniel Sundmark 


Abstract:

In this thesis we investigate the problem of automatic calibration and control of hydraulic components in the domain of construction equipment. Methods that are able to remove a costly manual approach in favour of an automatic one are investigated and evaluated. The thesis aims to investigate what methods are available in achieving this goal as well as evaluate the performance and applicability of such methods in the domain of construction equipment. The literature indicates that a great focus is put on learning a model of the plant at run time in order to provide accurate control. Common approaches to the problem are the Recursive Least Square method and PID controllers for non-linear systems, but other methods are also present, such as the Nodal Link Perceptron Network (NLPN). The methods chosen to be compared are the existing method of manually calibrating two set points for start and end current and interpolating between them; the use of a PI controller with a static line inverse model; a PI controller with a static curve inverse model; a PI controller with an NLPN adaptive inverse model and lastly, a completely NLPN based control strategy. The methods were implemented in Matlab Simulink and evaluated in simulations based on data collected from real wheel loaders in the construction equipment domain, produced by Volvo CE. The simulations are performed on data from three machines and were evaluated twice for the adaptive methods in order to evaluate how well the methods improved. The results were then evaluated in terms of average absolute error, as well as a discussion of the behaviour shown in the plots. The evaluations indicates that the most effective method for control is the PI controller using a static line inverse model.


Sammanfattning:



Link to the thesis:

http://www.idt.mdh.se/examensarbete/index.php?choice=show&id=2172



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