ci - check in RCS revisions


      ci [options] file ...


      ci stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS
      suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be
      working files containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of
      each working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a working
      file is given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS
      subdirectory and then in the working file's directory.  For more
      details, see FILE NAMING below.

      For ci to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except
      if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the
      owner of the file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch,
      the tip revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.
      Otherwise, only a new branch can be created.  This restriction is not
      enforced for the owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see
      rcs(1)).  A lock held by someone else can be broken with the rcs

      Unless the -f option is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
      deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of creating
      a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.  To revert, ordinary
      ci removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps and ci -u
      removes any lock, and then they both generate a new working file much
      as if co -l or co -u had been applied to the preceding revision.  When
      reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

      For each revision deposited, ci prompts for a log message.  The log
      message should summarize the change and must be terminated by end-of-
      file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are
      checked in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the
      standard input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses
      the same log message for all files.  See also -m.

      If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the
      contents of the working file as the initial revision (default number:
      1.1).  The access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the log
      message, ci requests descriptive text (see -t below).

      The number rev of the deposited revision can be given by any of the
      options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.  rev can be
      symbolic, numeric, or mixed.  Symbolic names in rev must already be
      defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during checkin.
      If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in
      the working file.

      If rev begins with a period, then the default branch (normally the
      trunk) is prepended to it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
      period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

      If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on
      the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

      If rev is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
      appended to that branch.  The level number is obtained by incrementing
      the tip revision number of that branch.  If rev indicates a non-
      existing branch, that branch is created with the initial revision
      numbered rev.1.

      If rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
      caller's last lock.  If the caller has locked the tip revision of a
      branch, the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
      number is obtained by incrementing the tip revision number.  If the
      caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that
      revision by incrementing the highest branch number at that revision.
      The default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

      If rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
      locking is not set to strict, then the revision is appended to the
      default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

      Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not


           Check in revision rev.

      -r   The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning
           in ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the
           most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a bare
           -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releasing a lock
           and removing the working file, and is used to override any
           default -l or -u options established by shell aliases or scripts.

           works like -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the
           deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
           checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a
           revision although one wants to continue editing it after the

           works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
           This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

           The -l, bare -r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and
           silently override each other.  For example, ci -u -r is
           equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

           forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
           different from the preceding one.

           searches the working file for keyword values to determine its
           revision number, creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
           and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather than
           computing them locally.  It also generates a default login
           message noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin
           date.  This option is useful for software distribution.  A
           revision that is sent to several sites should be checked in with
           the -k option at these sites to preserve the original number,
           date, author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the
           default log message can be overridden with the options -d, -m,
           -s, -w, and any option that carries a revision number.

           quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A revision that is
           not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless -f
           is given.

           initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
           This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

           just checkin and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS
           file does not already exist.

           interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the
           standard input is not a terminal.

           uses date for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified
           in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for lying
           about the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
           date is empty, the working file's time of last modification is

           Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
           of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does not
           alter f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to
           keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse

           uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
           in.  By convention, log messages that start with # are comments
           and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's vc package.  Also,
           log messages that start with {clumpname} (followed by white
           space) are meant to be clumped together if possible, even if they
           are associated with different files; the {clumpname} label is
           used only for clumping, and is not considered to be part of the
           log message itself.

           assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in
           revision.  ci prints an error message if name is already assigned
           to another number.

           same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of

           sets the state of the checked-in revision to the identifier
           state.  The default state is Exp.

           writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
           the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin
           with -.

           Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file,
           deleting the existing text.

           The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an
           initial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

           During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the
           text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
           containing . by itself.  The user is prompted for the text if
           interaction is possible; see -I.

           For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
           option is ignored.

      -T   Set the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time
           if the former precedes the latter and there is a new revision;
           preserve the RCS file's modification time otherwise.  If you have
           locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's modification
           time to the current time, because the lock is stored in the RCS
           file and removing the lock requires changing the RCS file.  This
           can create an RCS file newer than the working file in one of two
           ways: first, ci -M can create a working file with a date before
           the current time; second, when reverting to the previous revision
           the RCS file can change while the working file remains unchanged.
           These two cases can cause excessive recompilation caused by a
           make(1) dependency of the working file on the RCS file.  The -T
           option inhibits this recompilation by lying about the RCS file's
           date.  Use this option with care; it can suppress recompilation
           even when a checkin of one working file should affect another
           working file associated with the same RCS file.  For example,
           suppose the RCS file's time is 01:00, the (changed) working
           file's time is 02:00, some other copy of the working file has a
           time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.  Then ci -d -T sets
           the RCS file's time to 02:00 instead of the usual 04:00; this
           causes make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the other copy is
           newer than the RCS file.

           uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.
           Useful for lying about the author, and for -k if no author is

      -V   Print RCS's version number.

      -Vn  Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

           registers the checked in files in the Change Request. This option
           (or -C) is mandatory when the environment variable SDE_CR_CI is
           set to ON.

           registers the checked in files and their log messages in the
           Change Request. This option (or -c) is mandatory when the
           environment variable SDE_CR_CI is set to ON.

           specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
           any pathname ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
           pathname of the form RCS/path or path1/RCS/path2.  The -x option
           can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For example,
           -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.  If two or
           more suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when looking
           for an RCS file; the first one that works is used for that file.
           If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be created, the
           suffixes are tried in order to determine the new RCS file's name.
           The default for suffixes is installation-dependent; normally it
           is ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit commas in filenames, and
           is empty (i.e. just the empty suffix) for other hosts.

           specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and
           specifies the default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
           The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or the special
           string LT for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
           uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone
           indication and with slashes separating the parts of the date;
           otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format with time zone
           indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
           Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
           output as follows:
                option    time output
                -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30
           The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
           are always UTC.


      Pairs of RCS files and working files can be specified in three ways
      (see also the example section).

      1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname
      is of the form path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the form
      path2/workfile where path1/ and path2/ are (possibly different or
      empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS suffix.  If X is
      empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

      2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in
      the current directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS
      file by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

      3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix
      X in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or
      (if the former is not found and X is nonempty) path2/workfileX.

      If the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for
      the RCS file first in the directory ./RCS and then in the current

      ci reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an
      unusual reason, even if the RCS file's pathname is just one of several
      possibilities.  For example, to suppress use of RCS commands in a
      directory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that casual attempts
      to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.


      Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a
      subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the following
      commands check in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest
      revision, removing io.c.
           ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
           ci  io.c  RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
           ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

      Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current
      directory contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
      of the following commands checks in a new revision.
           ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
           ci  io.c  RCS/io.c;
           ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;


      An RCS file created by ci inherits the read and execute permissions
      from the working file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
      its read and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all write
      permissions of RCS files.


      Temporary files are created in the directory containing the working
      file, and also in the temporary directory (see TMPDIR under
      ENVIRONMENT).  A semaphore file or files are created in the directory
      containing the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the semaphore names
      begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do not
      specify an suffix whose first character could be that of a working
      filename.  With an empty suffix, the semaphore names end with _ so
      working filenames should not end in _.

      ci never changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the
      file and creates a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or
      more symbolic links to an RCS file, it unlinks the destination file
      instead.  Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any
      working file it changes; and hard links to RCS files are ineffective,
      but symbolic links to RCS files are preserved.

      The effective user must be able to search and write the directory
      containing the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to read
      the RCS and working files and to search and write the directory
      containing the working file; however, some older hosts cannot easily
      switch between real and effective users, so on these hosts the
      effective user is used for all accesses.  The effective user is the
      same as the real user unless your copies of ci and co have setuid
      privileges.  As described in the next section, these privileges yield
      extra security if the effective user owns all RCS files and
      directories, and if only the effective user can write RCS directories.

      Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of
      the directory containing the files; only users with write access to
      the directory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.  For
      example, in hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one
      can make a group's RCS directories writable to that group only.  This
      approach suffices for informal projects, but it means that any group
      member can arbitrarily change the group's RCS files, and can even
      remove them entirely.  Hence more formal projects sometimes
      distinguish between an RCS administrator, who can change the RCS files
      at will, and other project members, who can check in new revisions but
      cannot otherwise change the RCS files.


      To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting
      revisions, a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

      + Check that the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult a trustworthy
        expert if there are any doubts.  It is best if the seteuid system
        call works as described in Posix 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can
        switch back and forth easily between real and effective users, even
        if the real user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid
        system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior
        of Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user
        is root.  If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits

      + Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.
        Only A can invoke the rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A should
        not be root or any other user with special powers.  Mutually
        suspicious sets of users should use different administrators.

      + Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by the

      + Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A
        by copying the commands from their standard installation directory D
        as follows:
        mkdir  B
        cp  D/c[io]  B
        chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

      + Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:
        PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
        set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

      + Have A create each RCS directory R with write access only to A as
        mkdir  R
        chmod  go-w  R

      + If you want to let only certain users read the RCS files, put the
        users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory
        as follows:
        chgrp  G  R
        chmod  g-w,o-rwx  R

      + Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns

      + An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock
        revisions.  The default access list is empty, which grants checkin
        access to anyone who can read the RCS file.  If you want limit
        checkin access, have A invoke rcs -a on the file; see rcs(1).  In
        particular, rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

      + Have A initialize any new RCS files with rcs -i before initial
        checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

      + Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give
        them to rcs or to any other command.

      + Do not use other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is
        trickier than you think!


           options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A
           backslash escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT options
           are prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.  Useful
           RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

           Name of the temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
           variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
           found is taken; if none of them are set, a host-dependent default
           is used, typically /tmp.

           defines if the -c or -C options are obligatory. When the option
           is defined as SDE_CR_CI=ON then one of these two options must be


      For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the
      number of both the deposited and the preceding revision.  The exit
      status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.


      Author: Walter F. Tichy.
      Modified by Ivica Crnkovic
      Manual Page Revision: 1.5; Release Date: 1996/10/08.
      Copyright c 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
      Copyright c 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.


      co(1), emacs(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1),
      rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
      Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
      & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.