Subject: Embedded systems
Level: Advanced
Description: Virtualization has become an important aspect of the IT world by improving scalability and
workloads which can lead to benefits such as optimizing resources and simplifying
management of processes [1]. In a virtualized environment, a hypervisor, also known as a
virtual machine monitor (VMM), acts as a platform for running virtual machines and allows for
the consolidation of physical computing resources such as CPUs, memory and storage [2]. A
VMM is a piece of software that virtualizes the hardware and enables isolation between the
operating system (OS) processes [3]. It handles resource and memory allocation of the host for
all the virtual machines, ensuring that they cannot interrupt each other.
However, when multiple virtual machines concurrently run on the same hardware, they share
the same available resources of physical host and it may lead in the high level of unpredictability
of performance. Predictability is especially important in time sensitive systems such as
avionics. The avionic industry enforces the ARINC-653 standard, which is the software
interface for avionic processes. The standard furthermore specifies how an operating system
should consolidate shared resources, which is by enforcing total isolation of a process and its
hardware resources during the process timeslice. Methods for achieving different degrees of
isolation include partitioning of different hardware resources, scheduling processes to enforce
I/O isolation and also using virtualized environments to limit the CPU resource sharing.
Start date: 2018-03-26
End date: 2018-05-23
IDT supervisors: Jakob Danielsson